Concept d’adaptation chez les conjoints de femmes iraniennes atteintes du cancer du sein : étude qualitative basée sur une approche phénoménologique

Marzieh Jahani Sayad Noveiri, Farshid Shamsaei, Masoud Khodaveisi, Zohreh Vanaki, Lily Tapak

Abstract


Introduction : Le cancer du sein provoque une crise multidimensionnelle qui ébranle non seulement la patiente, mais aussi le conjoint et les autres membres de sa famille. Il convient donc d’étudier l’adaptation à ce phénomène, qui constitue l’une des principales difficultés pour les proches. En comprenant mieux comment les conjoints de femmes atteintes d’un cancer du sein font face à cette crise, ces derniers pourraient mieux prendre soin de leurs épouses et améliorer leur qualité de vie. 

But de l’étude : L’étude visait à explorer le concept d’adaptation à partir d’expériences vécues par les conjoints de femmes souffrant d’un cancer du sein.

Méthodologie : Cette étude qualitative a été réalisée en 2019 selon une approche phénoménologique dans les villes de Hamadan et Rasht, en Iran. Le groupe de participants comptait 20 conjoints de femmes atteintes du cancer du sein, recrutés grâce à une méthode d’échantillonnage par choix raisonné. Les données ont été recueillies au moyen d’entretiens non structurés en personne; elles ont été analysées à l’aide de la méthode phénoménologique en six étapes de van Manen. 

Résultats : Les expériences vécues par les participants ont montré que le phénomène d’adaptation des conjoints au cancer du sein de leur femme se décline en cinq thèmes : souffrance émotionnelle, fardeau des soins, maintien de la cohésion familial, incertitude de l’avenir et sentiment de perte du concept de soi. La compréhension du concept d’adaptation chez les conjoints de femmes atteintes du cancer du sein dans les stratégies de santé peut aider les femmes à bien s’adapter, tout en aidant les professionnels à adopter des mesures efficaces dans le domaine des soins médicaux, pour les patientes et leurs conjoints.


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