Rôle des infirmières praticiennes en soins primaires pour aplanir les obstacles au dépistage du cancer du col : revue de la littérature

Elizabeth King, David Busolo

Abstract


Presque tous les cas de cancer du col (CC) sont causés par une infection persistante au virus du papillome humain (VPH). Le cancer du col est le deuxième carcinome en importance chez les femmes; malgré tout, les taux de dépistage pour le Canada en 2017 ont raté l’objectif par 19 %. On a, par exemple, observé des taux aussi bas que 57,6 % dans les quartiers défavorisés de l’Ontario, comparativement à 70 % dans les quartiers aisés. Des obstacles complexes et multifactoriels nuisent à la participation des femmes au dépistage du cancer du col (DCC). Les écueils les plus courants sont directement liés aux disparités dans les déterminants de santé, notamment l’appartenance à une minorité ethnique, le faible statut socio-économique, une moins grande éducation, et la difficulté d’accès aux soins de santé. Les infirmières praticiennes (IP) peuvent aplanir ces obstacles en prodiguant des soins d’avant-garde, fondés sur la recherche, respectueux de la culture et attentifs aux besoins des femmes tout en établissant des liens de confiance avec les patientes, jouant ainsi un rôle plus vaste dans la prévention de la maladie. L’objectif de la présente revue de littérature est de résumer les contraintes au DCC et le rôle que peuvent jouer les IP canadiennes pour les alléger.

Mots-clés : cancer du col, dépistage du cancer, infirmière praticienne, obstacles


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